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#R8322
Rough ER Targeting

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Shockwave Flash
APS
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Description This submission is a component of a series explaining various aspects of protein translation. Other components, submitted separately, are Protein Translation Overview, Protein Translation PA Sites, Peptidyl Transferase Activity, Transfer RNA, Genetic Code, Ribosome Assembly, Nuclear Pore Complexes, Nucleolus and Protein Sorting. This submission describes five types of proteins deposited across the RER membrane. The signal sequence of lumenal proteins is recognized by a docking protein, which binds a RER receptor. The receptor presents the protein to a translocon, allowing the polypeptide to pass into the RER lumen. Type I transmembrane proteins are like to lumenal proteins except that they have a stop transfer anchor sequence (STA). This hydrophobic domain serves as a transmembrane domain anchoring the protein to the RER membrane. Type II and III transmembrane proteins have a stop anchor sequence (SA) instead of a signal sequence and STA. Type IV proteins have alternating SA and STA sequences that serve as multiple transmembrane domains. This animation serves as a valuable resource for any collegiate-level course that presents translation across the RER. Courses that might employ it include Introductory Biology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology. Two modes are provided for each lesson, “Labeled” and “PopUp.” Users can toggle between the modes at any point in a lesson. In the "Labeled" mode titles, labels and explanatory text accompany the images. The explanatory text makes an animation useful for self-study. To make an animation appropriate as a visual aid for lectures the explanatory text can be toggled off, thereby preventing it from competing with an instructor’s verbal explanations. The “PopUp” mode is designed to summarize key points, making it particularly conducive to self-study. Information appears when the cursor is passed over an object. In many cases additional information appears when the object is clicked.
Type of Resource Animation
Format Shockwave Flash - SWF
Technical Note Flash-enabled web browser To open the animations with a Windows operating system using Internet Explorer follow these steps: (1) Click the link for the animation. (2) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation. On most screens unless specified, clicking anywhere on the screen advances the action. To open the animations with a MAC operating system, click the link for the animation. If the .swf doesn't open it may have gone to your downloads file. If so, find your downloads file (home folder?), open your browser: File: Open File: select the title from downloads: open. It should open in your browser.
Author
Jack Thatcher, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine
Development Date June 25, 2013
Grade/Age Levels Undergraduate lower division (Grades 13-14)
Undergraduate upper division (Grades 15-16)
Graduate
Professional (degree program)
Pedagogies
Learning Time <=1 hour
Language English
Type of Review Reviewed By LifeSciTRC Board
Review Date November 18, 2013
Keywords
Suggested Use

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This animation is a component of a series of animated lessons explaining various aspects of protein translation.  These are difficult concepts that students often find difficult to grasp. The entire series serves as a valuable resource for any collegiate-level course that presents protein translation because of its unique ability to convey complex information in an animated visual format.

Johana Vallejo, Midwestern University


Excellent animations, conceptualization, and content!  Highly recommended.  

Elissa Carney, American Physiological Society


nice animation depicting different mechanisms

Thomas Schmidt, UIowa